Clay Firing

A Comparative Study of Mineralogical Transformations in Fired Clays from the Laboyos Valley, Upper Magdalena Basin (Colombia); Oscar Mauricio Castellanos A. et al; Boletín de Geología; Vol. 34 No.1 Bucaramanga Jan/June 2012
A new method for thermal dehydration studies of clay minerals; G. Kulbicki, R.E. Grim; 29 Jan 1959
Carbonate and silicate phase reactions during ceramic firing; G.Cultrone et al.; Eur. J. Mineral. 2001, 13, 621-634
Ceramic Technology. How to reconstruct the firing process; E.Gliozzo; Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences; 2020 12:260
Firing transformations of an Argentinean calcareous commercial clay; M.F. Serra et al.; Cerâmica 59 (2013) 254-261
Kinetics of Clay Dehydration; P. Murray, J. White; 5 Nov 1954
Modified Mineral Phases During Clay Ceramic Firing; M. Elouahabi et al; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 63, No. 5, 404–413, 2015
Phase Transformation, Technological Properties and Microstructure of Fired Products Based on Clay-Dolomite Mixtures; B.S.Gonidanga et al.; Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineerin; Vol.7 No.11, November 2019
The change of phase composition in kaolinite- and illite-rich clay-based ceramic bodies; A. Aras; Applied Clay Science 24 (2004) 257–269
Thermal Behavior of the Kaolin Minerals; H.Insley, R.H.Ewell; National Bureau of Standards Research Paper RP792; May 1935
Thermal Transformation of Fired Clay Ceramics by Dilatometric Analysis; L.Beddiar et al; Acta Physica Polonica A; Vol. 134 (2018)
Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin; B.J.Ilic et al; January 2010; Hemijska Industrija 64(4):351-356


Dehydration of Clays; US Bureau of Standards; Technological Paper 21; 1913
Some Standard Thermal Dehydration Curves of Minerals; US Geological Survey Professional Paper 197-E; 1941-42


Estimation of the Heat of Reaction in Traditional Ceramic Compositions; S. Ferrer et al.; Instituto de Tecnología Cerámica, Asociación de Investigación de las Industrias Cerámicas, Universitat Jaume I. Castellón, Spain; 2014

Glaze/Body Interaction

Characterization of the interaction between glazes and ceramic bodies; Mária Kavanova; July 2017Ceramics Silikaty 61(3):1-10

Metal Fumes

High Temperature Vaporization Behavior of Oxides. I. Alkali Metal Binary Oxides; R.H. Lamoreaux, D.L. Hildenbrand; Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 13, 151 (1984)

Phases and Phase Diagrams

ACerS phase diagram database
Factsage software
From Lime to Silica and Alumina Systematic Modeling of Cement Clinkers using a General Force-Field; A.A.Freitas et al.; Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys.,2015,17, 18477
Phase Diagrams: The Beginning of Wisdom; R. Schmid-Fetzer; JPEDAV (2014) 35:735–760
Phase Transformations in Silica as Examined by Continuous X-Ray Diffraction; F.M. Wahl, R.E. Grim, R.B. Graf; The American Mineralogist, Vol. 46, Jan-Feb 1961
Quartz Inversions and Conversions;

Statistical Calculation and Development of Glass Properties
Teaching Phase Equilibria
The Main Silica Phases and Some of Their Properties; I.G.Polyakova; Glass: selected properties and crystallization Chapter 4; 2014
Thermodynamic assessment of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system; Huahai Mao et al.; Journal of the American Ceramic Society; January 2006 89(1):298-308

Thermal Expansion

Glaze Thermal Expansion; John Sankey

Health and Safety

Kiln Safety Manual; Orton Cermics; 2004


Where possible, I've tried to give details of manufacturers rather than resellers/distributors.


LL Kilns / Hotkilns

Kiln Furniture


Bartlett Instruments
Stafford Instruments