Clay Firing

A Comparative Study of Mineralogical Transformations in Fired Clays from the Laboyos Valley, Upper Magdalena Basin (Colombia); Oscar Mauricio Castellanos A. et al; Boletín de Geología; Vol. 34 No.1 Bucaramanga Jan/June 2012
A new method for thermal dehydration studies of clay minerals; G. Kulbicki, R.E. Grim; 29 Jan 1959
Carbonate and silicate phase reactions during ceramic firing; G.Cultrone et al.; Eur. J. Mineral. 2001, 13, 621-634
Ceramic Technology. How to reconstruct the firing process; E.Gliozzo; Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences; 2020 12:260
Firing transformations of an Argentinean calcareous commercial clay; M.F. Serra et al.; Cerâmica 59 (2013) 254-261
Kinetics of Clay Dehydration; P. Murray, J. White; 5 Nov 1954
Modified Mineral Phases During Clay Ceramic Firing; M. Elouahabi et al; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 63, No. 5, 404–413, 2015
Phase Transformation, Technological Properties and Microstructure of Fired Products Based on Clay-Dolomite Mixtures; B.S.Gonidanga et al.; Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineerin; Vol.7 No.11, November 2019
The change of phase composition in kaolinite- and illite-rich clay-based ceramic bodies; A. Aras; Applied Clay Science 24 (2004) 257–269
Thermal Behavior of the Kaolin Minerals; H.Insley, R.H.Ewell; National Bureau of Standards Research Paper RP792; May 1935
Thermal Transformation of Fired Clay Ceramics by Dilatometric Analysis; L.Beddiar et al; Acta Physica Polonica A; Vol. 134 (2018)
Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin; B.J.Ilic et al; January 2010; Hemijska Industrija 64(4):351-356
Effect of the Change of Firing Temperature on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Clay Bricks from Beruas (Malaysia); I. Johari et al; Science of Sintering, Vol 42; 2010
Effect of cassava peel on the insulating properties of ogugu clay deposit; Kovo Akpomie et al; Int J of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology Volume 4 Issue 8; August 2016
Evaluation of Mixed Local Materials for Low Voltage Insulators; E.I.Ezenwabude and T.C.Madueme; Int J of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, Vol 6 No 7; July 2015
Netzsch Thermal Academy - Ceramics and Glass
Sintering Behavior of Kaolin with Calcite; E Kłosek-Wawrzyn et al; Procedia Engineering 57(8); May 2013
Relationship between microstructure and the impact resistance of porcelain stoneware tiles; Neslihan Tamsü Selli̇; Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio; Oct 2020
The influence of incorporation of ZnO-containing glazes on the properties of hard porcelains; Dilshat U. Tulyaganov et al; J of the European Ceramic Soc 27(2); December 2007


Shrinkage and strength behaviour of quartzitic and kaolinitic clays in wall tile compositions; Swapan Kr Das et al; Applied Clay Science 29; 2005

Body-Glaze Interface

Multi-Scale Investigation of Body-Glaze Interface in Ancient Ceramics; M. Godet et al; Heritage; 28 August 2019


Dehydration of Clays; US Bureau of Standards; Technological Paper 21; 1913
Some Standard Thermal Dehydration Curves of Minerals; US Geological Survey Professional Paper 197-E; 1941-42


Estimation of the Heat of Reaction in Traditional Ceramic Compositions; S. Ferrer et al.; Instituto de Tecnología Cerámica, Asociación de Investigación de las Industrias Cerámicas, Universitat Jaume I. Castellón, Spain; 2014

Glaze/Body Interaction

Characterization of the interaction between glazes and ceramic bodies; Mária Kavanova; July 2017Ceramics Silikaty 61(3):1-10

Metal Fumes

High Temperature Vaporization Behavior of Oxides. I. Alkali Metal Binary Oxides; R.H. Lamoreaux, D.L. Hildenbrand; Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 13, 151 (1984)

Phases and Phase Diagrams

ACerS phase diagram database
Factsage software
From Lime to Silica and Alumina Systematic Modeling of Cement Clinkers using a General Force-Field; A.A.Freitas et al.; Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys.,2015,17, 18477
Phase Diagrams: The Beginning of Wisdom; R. Schmid-Fetzer; JPEDAV (2014) 35:735–760
Phase Transformations in Silica as Examined by Continuous X-Ray Diffraction; F.M. Wahl, R.E. Grim, R.B. Graf; The American Mineralogist, Vol. 46, Jan-Feb 1961
Quartz Inversions and Conversions;

Statistical Calculation and Development of Glass Properties
Teaching Phase Equilibria
The Main Silica Phases and Some of Their Properties; I.G.Polyakova; Glass: selected properties and crystallization Chapter 4; 2014
Thermodynamic assessment of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system; Huahai Mao et al.; Journal of the American Ceramic Society; January 2006 89(1):298-308

Thermal Expansion

Glaze Thermal Expansion; John Sankey

Analyses of Ceramics

A collection of papers and articles analysing historical ceramics, containing useful data or images relevant to firing
The microstructure of multicolor hare’s fur glaze: the correlation between morphological and compositional characteristics and glaze color; Ming Guan et al; Heritage Science volume 9, Article number: 21; 2021
Hispano-Moresque ceramic tiles from the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha (Coimbra, Portugal); S. Cuentro et al; J. Archaeological Science; July 2013
Volcanic petrographic textures in ceramic-glaze interfaces; J.L. Rowe and M. G. Bjørnerud; J of Geoscience Education 48(3); May 2000
Study on firing temperature of the Song Dynasty (960–1279AD) greenish-white porcelain in Guangxi, China by thermal expansion method; Yongdong Tong & Changming Wang; Heritage Science Vol 7, Article No 70; 2019

Kiln and Element Design

How to design electric elements for kilns; kiln and element design for a furnace for gold refinery. Post in Gold Refiner's Forum
Unifrax Fibrewall Installation Manual - The Blue Book - kiln and furnace design using ceramic fibre; Unifrax; 2008

Health and Safety

Durability of glass and ceramic fibres within the lung; P.J.Conroy; PhD Thesis, Sheffield Hallam Uni; July 1990
Kiln Safety Manual; Orton Cermics; 2004
Man-made Vitreous Fibres; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 81; 2002; ISBN 978-92-832-1581-3


Where possible, I've tried to give details of manufacturers rather than resellers/distributors.


LL Kilns / Hotkilns

Kiln Furniture


Bartlett Instruments
Stafford Instruments



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